英語と歴史を同時に学ぶ 「史実を世界に発信する会」の英訳教科書 9

長崎市五島町にある羅針塾 学習塾・幼児教室 http://rashinjyuku.com/wp では、冬期講習を終え、三学期の新しいスタートを切りました。

さて、「史実を世界に発信する会」の英訳教科書 8の 第5章 近代の日本と世界(Ⅱ) 大正・昭和時代前半 以前の歴史を書き残していたので、相前後しますがご紹介します。

現在の日本では、Chinaの軍備拡張、領海侵犯やNorth Koreaの核開発などの近隣の軍事的緊張もあって憲法改正問題が焦眉の急です。150年前の1868(明治元年)に発布された五箇条の御誓文は、会議を開き、世論に基づいて政治を行うことを国の根本方針として宣言しました。近代化を急ぐ明治の日本では、憲法に関して民間から憲法草案を発表するほど関心が強かったのです。

『新しい歴史教科書』(新版・中学社会)(自由社)英訳シリーズ その8-第4章「近代の日本と世界(I)―幕末から明治時代」http://www.sdh-fact.com/CL02_2/Chapter%204%20Section%203,%204.pdf

Efforts by the government and people to write a constitution

Outside the capital, civic-minded men began to independently form a variety of groups dedicated to conducting research with foreign books and preparing draft constitutions. These private draft constitutions all advocated forms of constitutional monarchy and are testament to the remarkable intellectualism, passion for learning, and strong patriotic feelings of ordinary Japanese citizens during the Meiji period.

Both the Meiji Government and the Freedom and People’s Rights Movement agreed that Japan needed a constitution and national assembly in order to forge a modern nation-state and renegotiate the unequal treaties. However, the Freedom and People’s Rights Movement sought immediate action, whereas the Meiji Government wanted to move forward cautiously. The Meiji Government sent Ito Hirobumi to Europe for the purpose of examining and researching the constitutions of other countries such as Prussia. Upon returning to Japan, he set about preparing the government’s draft constitution together with Inoue Kowashi and other officials. Though Ito consulted the models provided by European constitutions, the draft constitution he drew up was also clearly founded upon Japanese religious and cultural traditions. In 1885 (Meiji 18), Ito established a cabinet system and took office as Japan’s first prime minister.





立志社 日本憲法見込案

Reading Groups and the Draft Constitutions of the Freedom and People’s Rights Movement

During the early Meiji period, learned societies sprung up throughout Japan and many reading groups, known as kaidoku in Japanese, were convened. Japanese reading groups were public discussions of translations of foreign laws or of Western books on politics and economics, just as was undertaken in private academies and domain schools of the Edo period. During these discussions, people were encouraged, not to submit to the opinion of others, but rather to present their own criticisms and build logic-based arguments. As a result of the reading groups, Japanese people across their country were able to learn about Western ideas of constitutionalism, and they joined together to write a variety of private draft constitutions, which were called “popular constitutions”. The total number of the draft popular constitutions written throughout Japan during this period exceeded 3,000.

Some of the most important of these draft constitutions were the following:

Draft Constitution of Japan (proposed by Naito Roichi)
Draft Constitution of Greater Oriental Japan (proposed by Ueki Emori)
Draft Constitution of Japan (proposed by the Self-Help Society)
Constitution of the Empire of Japan – also called the Itsukaichi Constitution (proposed by Chiba Takusaburo)
Iwakura Tomomi Constitution Outline (proposed by Inoue Kowashi)

All the draft constitutions contained provisions stipulating that Japan was to be a constitutional monarchy. For example, the Itsukaichi Constitution contained the following clauses.

“-The figure of the Emperor is sacred and inviolable, and bears no responsibility to any other body.”
“-The Emperor oversees the judicial, executive, and legislative branches of government.”
















また、1871(明治4年)刊行の「西国立志編」(中村正直訳)(イギリスのサミュエル・スマイルズの「Self Help(自助論)」(1859)」の翻訳書)は、西洋の歴史上の人物三百数十人の成功談を掲載し、勤勉,忍耐,節約といった美徳を涵養して人生を切り開くことを説きました。。〈天は自ら助くるものを助く〉という言葉が示すように,自助努力の効用に対する楽天観が基本に有り,没落した士族の子弟をはじめとして青少年に多大な感銘と影響を与えました。総発行部数は100万部以上といわれ,「学問ノススメ」同様、明治期を通して広く読まれました。


posted by at 16:17  |  塾長ブログ



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